Estimative Language: How to Assign Confidence to Your Assessments

Adam Goss
11 min readJun 3, 2024
Estimative Language

Estimative language is a cornerstone of any good cyber threat intelligence report. It allows analysts to make clear, precise, and transparent assessments about the likelihood of an outcome or event so key stakeholders can make informed decisions. Without it, the lines between judgment and fact become blurred.

This guide will teach you what you need to start using estimative language in your threat intelligence reports and accurately assign a confidence level to your assessments. You will learn what estimative language is, its importance, and its three main components.

I will also share practical advice on using estimative language in the real world so you can begin implementing it today. Let’s jump straight in and start using estimative language!

What is Estimative Language?

Cyber threat intelligence (CTI) is all about making assessments. An assessment is a structured evaluation of the available information that produces a judgment or conclusion about a specific topic, event, or issue.

For example, “Based on the available intelligence, we conclude that this attack is linked to an ongoing phishing campaign targeting the financial sector known as Bob’s Big Phish.”



Adam Goss

Helping demystify cyber threat intelligence for businesses and individuals | CTI | Threat Hunting | Custom Tooling